Understanding the Role of Fiber in Your Pet’s Diet

Most pet owners immediately associate fiber with healthy poop. However, fiber does much more for your pet than that. Fiber plays a significant role in the absorption of nutrients in their diet and can benefit their overall health in many ways. 

Let’s take a look at the two types of fiber — soluble and insoluble — and explore how each affects your pet’s health. 

Soluble Fiber

Soluble fiber is a non-digestible carbohydrate that absorbs moisture, turning into a gel-like substance during digestion. This process ultimately slows the digestive process, allowing for better nutrient absorption. Slower digestion also reduces blood sugar spikes, which is one reason sugars found in fruit don’t cause the same blood sugar spikes as cookies. Soluble fiber also promotes a healthy gut flora by feeding good bacteria (probiotics), which make up your pet’s microbiome. Without a food source (prebiotics), the good bacteria cannot survive, leading to a weakened immune system. Moreover, the bacteria break down fiber through fermentation into fatty acids, which help prevent the overgrowth of harmful bacteria in the gut.

Insoluble Fiber

Unlike soluble fiber, insoluble fiber serves a very different purpose within the gut. Insoluble fiber comes from the structural components of a plant that cannot be broken down, known as cellulose. Since these parts (aside from mechanical breakdown from chewing) cannot be degraded or fermented by gut bacteria, they have a laxative effect. This means as the food is being digested, it’s moving faster through the gastrointestinal tract. Insoluble fiber prevents constipation and keeps bowel movements regular despite decreased nutrient absorption.

Fiber can often be confused with carbohydrates in the diet. The body uses carbohydrates as a primary source of energy by breaking them down into glucose. Fiber, on the other hand, cannot be broken down because cats and dogs lack the digestive enzymes needed to convert fiber into energy. Instead, dietary fiber passes through the body undigested. Fiber is simply a type of carbohydrate.

A well-balanced diet contains both soluble and insoluble fiber. While you can gradually introduce more fiber-rich foods like cooked pumpkin or specialized pet food to your pet’s diet, you should remember that every pet is unique. Your dog or cat’s fiber requirements vary based on age, weight, and overall health. 

We recommend higher fiber diets to help pets improve health and wellness in three key areas: 

Weight Management

Fiber can help your pet feel fuller for longer periods. As soluble fiber absorbs water in the gut, it expands and fills the stomach, allowing your pet to feel full and satiated. Additionally, since insoluble fiber can slow the rate of digestion, this feeling of fullness can last longer. Since most fiber sources are extremely low in fat and calories, it’s an excellent tool for maintaining or achieving a healthy weight.

Gut Health

Feeding your dog fiber significantly impacts gut health by nourishing the beneficial bacteria in the digestive system. This, in turn, stimulates the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyrate. Butyrate plays a crucial role in promoting the growth of T cells, which are essential for a healthy immune system. By reducing chronic inflammation, which is the root cause of many diseases, fiber intake can help keep your pet healthy.  

Anal Gland Health

Having well-formed stools isn’t just crucial for ease of backyard cleanup; your pet’s anal glands depend on them to express themselves regularly. If the stools are too soft or not large enough, anal glands can become impacted with fluid, leading to a “butt-scooting” behavior. Adding healthy fiber sources may help add volume to the stool, helping the body release the anal glands naturally during waste excretion.

Fiber for Your Pet

It’s important to note that dietary fiber needs vary between cats and dogs, and that every animal’s nutritional needs are unique. Incorporating fiber into your pet’s diet can have numerous benefits, but finding the right balance is essential. Consult with your veterinarian or our team at NorthPoint Pets to determine what kind and amount of fiber your pet needs. Our knowledgeable staff can answer any questions or concerns and help you create a well-balanced nutrition plan for your dog or cat.

*This article is for informational purposes only. It is not meant to provide medical advice or replace the advice of a qualified veterinarian.


McDonald, P., Edwards, R. A., Greenhalgh, J. F.D., Morgan, C. A., Sinclair, L. A., Wilkinson, R. G. (2011). Animal Nutrition (7th ed.). Harlow, England: Pearson Logman.

Andoh A, Tsujikawa T, Fujiyama Y. Role of dietary fiber and short-chain fatty acids in the colon. Curr Pharm Des. 2003;9(4):347-58.

Weber, Mickael, et al. A High-Protein, High-Fiber Diet Designed for Weight Loss Improves Satiety in Dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Volume 21, Issue 6.