Should My Pet Switch to Raw Food?

Should My Pet Switch to Raw Food?

Switching your dog or cat to raw food can bring many positive benefits to your pet, but there are important factors to consider.

Our 18 Best Lick Mat Treat Fillers

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Lick mats are an effective tool to help pets that struggle with anxiety. At NorthPoint, we’re frequently asked about lick mat fillers. Here are our top suggestions for lick mat fillers!

why does my cat puke

Why Does My Cat Puke?

Vomiting is one of the most commonly reported clinical signs noted in feline veterinary exams. While many cat owners fancy their cats as just having “sensitive stomachs” or simply “eating too fast”, chronic vomiting is not by any means healthy or ‘normal’.

Hold the Kefir!

Kefir has gained recent popularity for pets, but is it all it’s cracked up to be? Science says it’s iffy. The reasoning behind that is that the most common commercial kefir products either did not have the bacterial species it claimed to have, did not have adequate population of those bacteria or the products were mislabeled. Some products even had spelling errors on their packaging!

The most concerning of all was that the website and packaging of many of these products made a wide range of health claims, none of which are supported by the companion animal literature. This doesn’t mean that feeding kefir to your pets is bad per se, but it DOES mean we need to hold pet food companies responsible to safe manufacturing and food handling practices!

I was feeding Performatrin: Now what do I do?

‘House-brand’ or just marketing?

Large chain stores and online retailers such as Pet Valu, Chewy, Pet Smart, Costco and Petco have their own ‘in-house’ brands of dog food to help build customer loyalty. In reality all these ‘house brands’ are essentially a mimic on top selling pet foods under their private label or “house brand”. Their product is a literal copycat of top-selling foods in the marketplace and does not provide anything more superior to what is available to your local pet store. Sales associates are trained to direct consumers to their house brand because they make more money by selling you their brand.

If you were a Pet Valu customer and was persuaded to purchase their ‘exclusive’ line of food, Performatrin you may be finding yourself in a bit of a pickle seeing as how all US Pet Valu stores are closing. The silver lining is that you may be able to find a suitable or even better replacement for Performatrin while also helping support your local economy. Please, before jumping to Chewy, PetSmart, Petco or Amazon – visit your local pet retailer. You’ll be surprised to see a plethora of innovative and unique products, often for competitive prices.

At first taste, an exclusive line of food from an upscale retailer may appear to have everything you would want in a pet food – quality ingredients made by a small company with a passion for pets. Now with the announcement of Pet Value shutting all stores in the US in the midst of the COVID 19 pandemic, all of the appealing aspects of an exclusive food are no longer so appetizing. In fact, lines that are exclusive only to one chain, or store are usually known as ‘private label’. In short, most private label brands, despite marketing claims, are not all they’re made out to be. In fact, most do not even analyze their final formulations or products to verify they are complete and balanced!

What is private label?

Private label isn’t always a dirty word – but it can be in several contexts. While there are lot of examples, I’ll try and break it down simply. For example, private label could mean the following:

  • A generic formulation of food that exists as several brands, all with differing packaging. However, the ingredient labels and guaranteed analysis will typically read the same.
  • A proprietary formulation that is generally made by a large pet food manufacturer (who also makes several other brands), but packaged solely for one customer, or set of customers.

The reality is that there are only a handful of dog food manufacturing facilities in the U.S. This means that multiple, privately-owned brands of food can be manufactured under the same roof, often with the same ingredient sourcing. This is because ‘pooling’ of ingredients results in reduced costs. Other aspects to consider are cost of the facility, machinery, staffing as well as safety and quality certifications. There are several brands that own their own facilities, but that also doesn’t automatically translate to a superior product. Many high-quality products are manufactured in both situations – as a consumer you have to know what questions to ask to determine which products those are.

Why are private label brands problematic?

Private label brands can be problematic as a consumer because if the retailer who had exclusivity to that product closes their doors (e.g. Pet Valu), it leaves you without an avenue to continue getting your pets food. In addition, these private label brands may market themselves as transparent, when in reality they are very good at hiding pertinent information regarding the food formulation, adequacy testing and sourcing. This leaves you, the consumer, woefully unaware of potential issues – or risking not being able to contact the actual company or manufacturer if a problem arises.


Aside from barriers to purchasing these foods (e.g. if a retailer goes out of business), these brands also come with some potential risks – such as lack of nutritional adequacy or validation. As of the date of this article, none of the brands mentioned below were able to provide us with a full 3rd party nutritional analysis or digestibility study.

Don’t believe me? Keep reading and we’ll look at some of the more common “house-brands” and see if you can find them at another retailer.

  • Pet Valu: Performatrin (although with their closing, it wouldn’t be unusual to find it offered on Amazon)
  • American Journey
  • PetSmart: Authority
  • Petco: WholeHearted
  • Amazon: Wag
  • Tractor Supply: 4Health
  • Costco: Nature’s Domain (Kirkland)

How do I find a transparent brand?

While small businesses love your loyalty, it is unfair for them to force loyalty by persuading you to purchase a product you can only get at one location, or chain. As a consumer it is always beneficial to purchase products that are available elsewhere in case the situation should arise. That said, there are numerous quality brands that are ‘independent only’ which are vastly different than the shade of a private label because these brands tend to be more transparent, and accessible.

‘Independent only’ (local neighborhood pet store) brands are typically companies with adequate product development teams, more transparency behind the product and have greater brand stability. As a consumer, it gives you a real company to contact in the event of a problem, or if you have a question. Whereas a private label may leave you with the impression the retailer is responsible for the product – misleading on all fronts.

Personally, as a retailer, I would not put my name on something as ‘my own’ if I did not have nutritional adequacy and digestibility testing done on the final product. Leaving the formulation and validation of pet foods to those qualified to do so is something consumers and retailers should both be holding brands accountable to. The pet food market already has a low barrier to entry, with one of the largest problems being that anyone can formulate pet food and sell it in todays market – even without credentials.  It’s also good to ensure that all brands have policies and procedures that require all products be held from distribution until they are confirmed to be free from contaminants and pathogens (e.g. melamine, salmonella etc.)

What can I switch to?

The good news is that there are numerous high-quality brands on the market today that you can easily switch your pet to regardless of sensitivities, preferences, age, or any other factor. The sobering point for you is likely the fact that you’ve been paying top dollar for a brand that is very similar, if not identical to other easily accessible products. If you feed as if you’ve been misled, it’s because you have.

Your local independent retailers are ready and willing to help you find a suitable or even better-quality replacement. However, in the meantime, I encourage you to do your own homework by reaching out to pet food companies and asking questions about who their food is formulated by and in what facility it is made in. This may help to broaden your horizons for pet food options. If you’d like to know more about the ‘right’ questions to ask, and what typical answers may mean (or not mean) click here: 5 Ways Pet Owners Can Improve Pet Food.

Curious to switch? Let us know what you were feeding, and we will happily identify an equivalent or better food when you stop by.

The Big Miss: Is No-Hide® Actually Rawhide?

A ‘consumer advocate’ recently stirred up drama from July 2017 re-circulating an article (figure 1) claiming that Earth Animal No-Hide® treats were rawhide, again. This was on the heels of the announcement of a class-action lawsuit (figure 2) against Earth Animal Ventures (EAV) questioning the ingredients and sourcing of No-Hide® products. I didn’t think I would have to address this issue, but apparently, I do since misinformation and cherry-picked information from the original chain of events keeps circulating (if it’s on the internet it must be true, right?). Consumers and retailers alike need to see the situation for what it is, so I’ll also write this from both a retailer and consumer standpoint to provide the level of transparency I hold others to. As you read this, you’ll understand that both sides have significant issues. In fact, No-Hide® being (or not being) rawhide is hardly the issue. Instead there is a pervasive lack of transparency and misinformation from both the consumer advocate side and EAV.

How To Switch Your Cat’s Food


Have you ever tried to switch your cat to a new food without success? This is actually a common problem with cats, so rest assured you’re not alone! Switching your cat’s food can be stressful for you and your cat. Before you start there are a few important things to consider.  Switching your cat to a new food can be a challenge, but with careful planning, you can increase the chances of a successful transition. In this guide, we will provide you with practical tips to introduce a new food to your cat without stress.

Tips for a Smooth Cat Food Transition

  • Relax. Believe it or not, getting stressed before you even switch the food can also stress out your cat. Be sure to set the right tone by not drawing extra attention to mealtime or making a big deal about the new food.
  • Be sure to have 3+ weeks of your cats’ regular food on hand, this will be enough to fully transition.
  • Begin with clean bowls or feeding platters. You should be in the habit of washing bowls daily to prevent unhealthy bacteria from building up.
  • Believe it or not, bowls should be made of glass, USA food-grade ceramic, or a safe plant-based material. For more on this click here: Is Your Pet’s Healthy Food Being Served In A Toxic Bowl?
  • Cats can actually develop an aversion to food based on the size of their feeding bowl. Bowls for food and water should be wide and shallow so cats’ whiskers do not hit the sides of the bowl. This is a phenomenon called whisker fatigue and it leads people to believe their cat is picky when in reality it may be that the bowl is irritating them. In fact, saucers or plates are actually best!
  • Decide what you’re going to switch to, as there are countless options. Consider protein, texture, sourcing, and any health conditions at play. Textures of canned/wet food include pate, shredded, or stews. For raw food, some can be chunky or finer in texture.

Week-by-Week Transition Plan:

how to switch cat food

Week 1: 

You will only use a pea-sized amount of the new food at each meal. If you are using cans or pouches you can try and store them in the fridge for 2-3 days. However, most cats do not like cold food. Be prepared to throw away a fair amount of cat food in your first 1-2 weeks. If you are using raw food, it becomes a little easier as you can thaw small amounts at a time since many raw cat foods come in convenient little kibble-sized pieces that thaw quickly. Regardless, be sure that when you offer the food to your cat that it is at room temperature.

Simply take a pea-sized amount and spread it thinly and evenly along the entire bottom of the dish you are using. Then, take your normal food (kibble or wet) and put it directly on top.

Notes for Success

At this point, it is important to not mix the food. The small amount in the bottom of the dish is to simply introduce the aroma of the new food, and not necessarily get them to consume it. Serve the meal as you normally would without making a big deal about it. Be sure that you do not hover or stare at your cat – simply go about your activities as you normally would. Cats tend to pick up on energy and stress, and you want to avoid introducing any new variables.

It is normal for your cat to not eat any of the new food or maybe leave and return to the dish a few times before eating their regular food. Again, try not to make a big deal about any new behaviors. They should be used to the smell of the new food within a few days. You may find them even starting to lick the bottom of the bowl and clean the dish by the end of the first 5-7 days. This is a good sign, however, be sure not to increase the new food too quickly as to avoid digestive upset.

Pro Tip:

By day 3-4 of week 1 you may choose to take one teaspoon of warm water into the dish prior to adding your regular food if your cat is showing interest in the new food. This can promote an appetizing smell and help to increase moisture intake. At the same time recognize that this is the most critical week, be sure not to rush! Patience is key!

Week 2:

By this point, your cat should have shown some interest and consumed some of the new food at the bottom of the bowl. At this point, you may increase the wet food to 1-2 teaspoons. Repeat a similar process at week one making sure the food is room temperature, with the new food on top. If your cat has seemed to like the added water, you may continue to add it.

By day 4-5 of week two, you may increase the food another small amount as long as they are consuming what you are already given.  Now is the time to consider cutting back on the dry food by a similar volume.

Weeks #3 & #4:

By this time your cat may be only interested in the new food, which is perfectly ok!  If this is the case, there may or may not be a little bit of loose stool as a result of the cat’s decision to switch to the new food abruptly. This should subside within a day or two as their system adjusts.

If they are still consuming both foods, then you can continue increasing the new food and decreasing the kibble as each day progresses. As mentioned above, the entire process can be slow and take 3-4 weeks or more!

Sometimes, they will begin to act hungry, and/or vomit bile when switched too quickly because the gastric pH and amount of secretion have not had time to adjust to the new food, especially in the case of switching from dry to wet food or raw food. If this does happen try offering a small “snack” outside of mealtime. This could include freeze dried treats, food or fresh meat.

Pro Tip: Cats tend to not seek out water as dogs do. While there are biological reasons for this, this doesn’t mean that they should not have ample fresh, clean water available – ideally away from their food bowl. If your cat does drink regularly and you feed dry food, do not be surprised to see their water intake decrease as you move to a more moisture-rich food. This is normal!


The most important aspect of switching your cat’s food is not to stress! Be patient, and consistent. These practices pay off in time. Be sure to always ensure your cat has access to water. As they transition to a more moisture-rich food you may notice a healthier coat, brighter eyes, and even more energy!  Your cat who may not have been too playful prior may have more vigor and energy for exercise – it may be worth investing in a toy or two!


About the Author: Nicole Cammack

Nicole is the founder & owner of multiple-award-winning NorthPoint Pets & Company, in Connecticut, USA. She has completed undergraduate work in biological sciences, business and holds an M.S. in Nutrition. Currently, Nicole is pursuing a PhD in Comparative Biomedical Sciences (Canine Nutrition/Metabolomics) at the prestigious University of Georgia in the USA.

Her background includes experience in the pharmaceutical industry on multiple R&D projects and has had the privilege to learn from leading figures in the human and pet health industries. Nicole has been heavily involved in police canine nutrition within the USA, helping to improve the modern care and feeding of working dogs. Her interests include working dog nutrition, raw feeding, pathogens, metabolomics, and nutrition’s relationship to disease in humans and canines. Her current research involves the exploration of the canine urinary metabolome and the relationship to diet.

Publications: Cammack, N.R., Yamka, R.M., and Adams, V.J. (2021). Low Number of Owner-Reported Suspected Transmission of Foodborne Pathogens From Raw Meat-Based Diets Fed to Dogs and/or Cats. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 8. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2021.741575.




The Truth About Feeding Your Pet Raw Goat Milk

If you’re looking for a natural supplement to enhance your pet’s nutrition and hydration, raw goat milk can be an excellent option. This milk is often added to kibble, canned, and raw pet food to provide additional health benefits. Unlike pasteurized milk, raw goat milk retains essential nutrients and probiotics that can aid common digestive issues in pets. However, it’s crucial to keep in mind that consuming unpasteurized milk poses a higher risk of exposure to harmful pathogens. In this blog post, we will explore the scientific evidence supporting the use of raw goat milk as a dietary supplement for cats and dogs.

Truthfully? It’s Both Fact & Fictionraw pet food with goat milk

Many pet food companies claim that goat milk can be a miracle cure for digestive problems, allergies, and even appetite stimulation. However, these claims are not backed up by any scientific studies or peer-reviewed research specifically focused on cats and dogs. Of particular concern is the recommendation to use goat milk as a sole milk replacement for orphaned puppies and kittens. This is not a safe or sufficient source of nutrition, as we will explain below. While goat milk does have some benefits, it’s important to be aware of the misinformation that can surround it.

Goat milk is indeed different from cow milk and can be easier to digest due to its smaller fat globules.2 In addition, it contains a wide range of vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and fatty acids that could potentially boost your pet’s immune system and help with common allergy issues. However, there is a lack of published research to support these anecdotal claims of benefit for cats and dogs consuming goat milk.

Is Goat Milk Complete and Balanced for Cats & Dogs?

As a supplement to a complete and balanced diet, goat milk and milk products have the potential to provide benefit. However, this should not be considered as the sole source of nutrition. The major reason for this is because goats are ruminants. The word ruminant comes from the Latin word ruminare, which means “to chew over again.”3 Ruminants are mammals that eat a plant-based diet. We know that dogs and cats are omnivores and carnivores respectively, and their diet is therefore vastly different. Because their diet is different, the composition of their milk will also be different from that of another species. Considering this it is important to note that goat milk is inadequate to nutritionally sustain other infant species on its own. 

For orphaned puppies and kittens, or those that need supplementation it is best to consider a balanced milk replacer or finding a species appropriate milk donor.4

Nutrient Content of Various Species Milk

Comparing the nutrient content of milk from dogs, cats, cows and goats we can consider the following5:

  • Fat contained in cow and goat milk is less than half that in dog and cat milk
  • Protein contained within cow and goat milk is less than half that in dog and cat milk
  • Calcium & phosphorus content of cow and goat milk is significantly lower than that of dog and cat milk which can risk deficiency and proper skeletal development
  • Lactose amounts are higher in cow and goat milk than in cat and dog milk. This can cause diarrhea and dehydration leading to further complications.
  • Because the fat content of cow and goat milk is much lower than cat and dog milk, the calorie content is also significantly lower. This means that dogs and cats, especially puppies and kittens would not adequately be able to consume all of the calories and nutrients necessary for proper growth and development
  • Per this chart, the analysis of cat and dog milk is closer to each other than either cow or goat milk

Not All Bad News

The above points do not negate the practice of feeding goat milk products to pets. In fact, especially for kibble fed pets, raw goat milk provides increased moisture intake, which can improve digestion. Probiotic benefits of raw goat milk also cannot be ignored. Goat milk can also entice picky eaters since dogs and cats both love the taste. It can be used intermittently, or during fasting for those pets who may need light or bland meals due to certain conditions. While most pets can benefit from raw goat milk as a dietary supplement, it is potentially most beneficial for pets with digestive issues and those in need of immune support. 

Raw goat’s milk can be given to your pet by itself as a treat, as a topper for raw food, canned food, or over kibble. 

About the Author: Nicole Cammack

Nicci is the owner of award-winning NorthPoint Pets & Company, in Connecticut. She is also the Founder & CEO of Undogmatic Inc. Her undergraduate and graduate education includes biology, chemistry, business, and nutrition. She has worked in the pharmaceutical industry on multiple R&D projects and has had the privilege to learn from leading international figures in the human and pet health industry. She regularly lectures at national conferences, including federal, state, and municipal K9 events. Her current research involves identifying pathogenic risk factors and transmission among raw fed pets through a comprehensive worldwide survey.


1. Katafiasz AR, Bartlett P, Lansing E. Motivation for Unpasteurized Milk Consumption in Michigan, 201. :5.

2. Lad SS, Aparnathi KD, Mehta B, Velpula S. Goat Milk in Human Nutrition and Health – A Review. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci. 2017;6(5):1781-1792. doi:10.20546/ijcmas.2017.605.194

3. Latin Definition for: rumino, ruminare, ruminavi, ruminatus (ID: 33778) – Latin Dictionary and Grammar Resources – Latdict. Accessed June 6, 2020.

4. Can goat milk be used as a milk replacer for puppies and kittens? University of Wisconsin Madison Shelter Medicine Program. Accessed June 6, 2020.

5.  Hand et. al. Small Animal Clinical Nutrition. 5th ed. Mark Morris Institute


Are All Human Foods Dangerous for Dogs?

Every day there is more information made available to educate owners on various diets available. Commonly discussed and debated topics include grain-free foods and the age-old practice of giving your pets “table food.” Should we feed human food to our pets? The short answer is it depends. Some of these foods can be very beneficial and some could have unintended negative consequences.

fresh strawberries for dogs

Should I Feed My Pet Fresh Fruits & Vegetables?

Should we be adding fresh fruits and vegetables to our pet’s meals?

It seems like every week, we hear one thing and the next week it changes (like the great butter vs margarine debate). When it comes to our pets, nutrition is almost like a religion with many different beliefs and philosophies. Unfortunately, many of these arguments are based more on emotion than science. Although there is scientific evidence to support various nutrition philosophies, the interpretation of evidence can lead to potentially unsafe practices.

To make matters worse, marketing practices can further confuse pet owners and veterinarians, leaving them unable to distinguish fact from fiction. Despite this, we have seen significant shifts in recommendations for both humans and pets and diet-related diseases like insulin-dependent diabetes and obesity cannot be ignored. In humans, there is ample evidence to support a causal relationship between high intake of processed foods (containing refined carbohydrates/sugars) and insulin-dependent diabetes, obesity, and other metabolic-related diseases. It makes sense that we would worry about the same issues in our pets, considering that most dry pet foods contain between 40-60% refined carbohydrates.

Can Pets Digest Carbohydrates?

We know vegetables are important in the human diet, some more nutritionally beneficial than others, and the same applies to our pets. While the debate amongst many within the pet nutrition industry may disagree – our dogs are not wolves (read more here), and they can digest carbohydrates. While the ability to do this varies between various breeds, the focus of this blog isn’t the ability of our pets to digest carbs – instead, it is the benefits they obtain from fiber, antioxidants, and other phytochemicals contained within fruits and vegetables.

Our canines & felines need muscle meat, organ & bone partly due to the bioavailability of amino acids and other nutrients. If you were to give your dog the option of meat or plants/vegetables, studies show they would choose meat. However, when offered together, most dogs and some cats will consume fruit or vegetables too. Some trial and error with various cooking methods, chopping, mincing, or even blending in a food processor may entice those who may be pickier.

Why Supplementing Your Pet’s Diet with Vegetables is Importanthungry dog with fruit and vegetable bowl

As a pet owner, you may wonder if it’s necessary to supplement your pet’s diet with vegetables, especially if they don’t seem to like them. After all, isn’t pet food already complete and balanced? While pet food does provide the necessary nutrients, adding vegetables to your pet’s diet can provide additional benefits.

Vegetables and plants are abundant in vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fiber, and even beneficial bacteria. However, for pets that primarily consume canned and/or kibble food, adding fresh plant-based foods can provide protective benefits. Canned and kibble foods tend to have high levels of carcinogenic chemicals called advanced glycation end products, or AGEs.

The Negative Effects of AGEs

AGEs are naturally present in animal-based products, and additional AGEs form during the cooking process. Since dogs and cats primarily eat these types of food their entire life, their toxic load is much higher as a result. Toxic loads can negatively impact various organ systems, overall health, and even shorten the lifespan of pets and people.

The good news is that antioxidants and other phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables, particularly leafy greens and berries, help to ward off some of the negative effects of AGEs. By adding fresh, organic, raw, or lightly cooked plants and veggies to your pet’s diet, you can help to reduce the toxic load and improve their overall health.

The Limitations of Commercial Pet Food

Even the best raw, kibble, or dehydrated foods lack the benefits of fresh, organic, raw, or lightly cooked plants and veggies. By supplementing your pet’s diet with fresh plant-based foods, you can help to provide a well-rounded and balanced diet that supports their health and well-being.

Fruits and veggies you can feed to your pets include:
  • Leafy greens (rotate for variety)
  • Green beans
  • Broccoli/Cauliflower
  • Summer squash
  • Blueberries
  • Watermelon
  • Pineapple
  • Apples

….just to name a few!

What Foods are Safe for Dogs and Cats?

While there are only a few things dogs and cats can’t have, quantity is what matters. Here are some guidelines to keep in mind:

  • Monitor Onion Intake – Large amounts of onions can cause Heinz body anemia in pets, but small amounts in tomato sauce are usually fine. Garlic is safe in moderation and may benefit the immune system, while also serving as an effective flea & tick preventative.
  • Avoid Grapes and Avocados – Grapes and avocados may affect pets differently, so it’s best to avoid them altogether.
  • Experiment with Fruits and Vegetables – It’s okay to experiment with new fruits and vegetables one at a time, and observe for any adverse reactions. Fresh and healthy table food can be shared with your pet in moderation. 
  • Cats and High-Starch Foods – For cats specifically, avoid high-starch foods like potatoes, pumpkin, and grain-based products. Cats lack adequate enzymes to digest carbohydrates. Instead, focus on low-starch vegetables that are rich in antioxidants to support their digestive system.

How much to add?

These additions for cats should be kept low, however, they can be added to dog’s diets in greater amounts. Cats should consume no more than 5%, and dogs should be no more than 15-20%.


*This article is for informational purposes only. It is not meant to provide medical advice or replace the advice of a qualified veterinarian.


About the Author: Nicole Cammack

Nicole is the founder & owner of multiple-award winning NorthPoint Pets & Company, in Connecticut, USA. She has completed undergraduate work in biological sciences, business and holds an M.S. in Nutrition. Currently, Nicole is pursuing a PhD in Comparative Biomedical Sciences (Canine Nutrition/Metabolomics) at the prestigious University of Georgia in the USA.
Her background includes experience in the pharmaceutical industry on multiple R&D projects and has had the privilege to learn from leading figures in the human and pet health industries. Nicole has been heavily involved in police canine nutrition within the USA, helping to improve the modern care and feeding of working dogs. Her interests include working dog nutrition, raw feeding, pathogens, metabolomics, and nutrition’s relationship to disease in humans and canines. Her current research involves the exploration of the canine urinary metabolome and the relationship to diet.

Publications: Cammack, N.R., Yamka, R.M., and Adams, V.J. (2021). Low Number of Owner-Reported Suspected Transmission of Foodborne Pathogens From Raw Meat-Based Diets Fed to Dogs and/or Cats. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 8. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2021.741575.