Unveiling the Mystery Behind Paw Licking

I often caught my dog incessantly licking his paws. After a while, I began to wonder what was…

The Good, Better, and Best Dental Care for Your Pet

Your pet’s dental health is an important piece of their overall health and wellness. Oral disease can be caused…

The Importance of Dental Health in Dogs and Cats

February is here and what that entails in the animal world is Dental Health Month! Dental health is so important because poor dental health can have long term negative impacts on the heart, lungs, kidneys, and liver.

Dental disease can impact pets of any age, but some factors can influence risk which includes:

  • Age
  • Breed
  • Genetics
  • Poor diet
  • Health status
  • Home care
  • Bacterial flora of the oral cavity
  • Halitosis (bad breath)
  • Drooling
  • Blood-tinged saliva
  • Pawing at mouth

Plaque can form and build up on your pet’s teeth as quickly as 24 hours and if dental care/preventatives are not taken to remove plaque then calculus (tartar) buildup occurs within 3-5 days. When calculus starts to build up on your pet’s teeth, it gradually begins to push the gums away from the tooth, giving the calculus an opportunity to spread into your pet’s bloodstream. The bacteria that are built up within the calculus can lead to infection and have serious effects on the major organs mentioned above. 

Diet matters

Amazingly enough, diet has a pretty decent impact on your pet’s dental health. There is a myth, kibble is the best for dogs and cats because when they crunch on the hard pieces of kibble, it supposedly helps scrape the calculus away. Think about that. Have you ever watched your pet eat? More often than not, they swallow their kibble whole. Also, go to your dentist and tell them you forgot to brush your teeth, so you had chips to help scrape the calculus away from your teeth. Kibble contains high levels of sugars and carbohydrates which rapidly produce oral bacteria and plaque. Whereas fresh or raw diets can help protect your pet’s teeth and gums simply due to low or lack of starches. In other words, the food will not stick to the teeth like kibble would. 

The good news is that dental disease in your pet does not have to occur. While it is common, it’s actually not natural.

Helpful Preventative Care Techniques 

  1. Pay close attention to the diet you are giving your pet
  2. Introduce brushing at a young age 
  3. Supplements, dental cleaning pads and pet toothpastes include enzymes and pre and probiotics that can help break down plaque.
  4. Giving your pet toys and/or bones to chew to keep teeth clean
  5. Professional dental cleanings

Dental cleanings are great but should not have to happen yearly, or even in younger years. Yearly cleanings can have a negative impact on pets because anesthetic gasses used yearly can slowly apply stress on your pet’s organs. Think about the change that needs to happen- diet, toys/bones, brushing, etc. 


Holmstrom, Steven E. “Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease.” Veterinary Dentistry: A Team Approach, 2nd ed., Steven Holmstrom, 2013, pp. 150–153.

Holmstrom, Steven E. “Home-Care Instruction and Products.” Veterinary Dentistry: A Team Approach, 2nd ed., Steven Holmstrom, 2013, pp. 194–213.

Miller, Bonnie R, and John R Lewis. “Veterinary Dentistry.” Clinical Textbooks for Veterinary Technicians, 9th ed., Joanna M. Bassert, 2018, pp. 1222–1229.

Uncovering the Hidden Signs of Arthritis in Cats

Cats are notorious for hiding their discomfort very well, so it’s important to be aware of subtle changes in their behavior or routine that may indicate an underlying problem. 

Unfortunately, signs of arthritis in cats are often dismissed as normal signs of aging or go unnoticed altogether. 

Our job as pet owners is to pay close attention to their behaviors, so we can easily pick up on their tiny clues that they aren’t feeling their best. Since every cat will show discomfort differently, here are some behaviors to keep an eye out for that may indicate joint pain. 

Changes in litter box habits – Since most litter boxes have sides tall enough that your cat has to lift their legs and/or jump to enter/exit, they may seek alternative places to do their business that are easier to access. Similarly, they may struggle to settle into a comfortable position inside the litter box, or you may find that their aim is a little ‘off.’

Expert tip: Litter box habits offer a first line of observation into your cat’s health and well-being. If you observe changes in their routine, it’s best to schedule a vet visit as soon as possible. 

Changes in sleep patterns – Cats tend to develop strict routines, including specific preferred places to nod off throughout the day. Suppose your kitty historically likes to sleep up off the floor (my cat prefers the tall back of our couch) and suddenly prefers lower ground (often tucked out of sight). They may be too stiff to climb up or down from that place. Additionally, if the cat becomes more interested in hiding overall, that can be another red flag that they aren’t feeling great. 

Avoiding the stairs – This behavior mimics how dogs display joint pain — hesitating or struggling to go up or come down the stairs. This is particularly difficult with stiff joints if the stairs are bare (not carpeted) because they offer less cushion and traction for unstable joints. If kitty seems to suddenly spend all day on one level of the house, consider that they may need extra joint support. 

Less interest in playtime – While it’s common to observe your cat’s activity level decrease as they age, it’s not always simply because they’ve lost interest. Cats with healthy joints should still be able to jump, climb, and run for short play sessions throughout the day. If your cat seems interested in playing but prefers to participate without moving from their lounging spot, joint pain may be to blame. 

Irritability – Perhaps the most common indication of discomfort is a shift in their personality. Cats who don’t feel well will choose to seclude themselves as much as possible and become easily annoyed when they feel threatened. This can be as subtle as pinned ears when you pet them or a hiss if you pick them up. 

There are several ways to prevent and manage joint pain for cats:

  • Maintain a healthy weight with the right food and an appropriate feeding schedule (avoid free-feeding).
  • Reduce inflammation with a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids and rich in antioxidants to avoid cell degeneration. 
  • Maintain cartilage with glucosamine and chondroitin (many options are available for even the pickiest kitties!)
  • Ensure your cat has active playtime daily to keep their body moving. 
  • Provide supportive bedding and extra warmth during cold months. 
  • Provide litter boxes with at least one low side that is easily accessible.

If you’re not sure where to start, stop in to speak with one of our experts for tips!

Be Proactive for Your Pet’s Joints

What You Need to Know About Your Pet’s Joint Health

Joint health is a topic most pet owners don’t think about until their dog or cat has begun showing signs of pain or stiffness. 

The truth is, once you start to notice signs that your pet is uncomfortable, damage has already been done to the joint. It will take time (and a larger expense) to rebuild cartilage and try to reduce inflammation.

Just like with planting a tree, the perfect time to start addressing joint health is yesterday. The second best time is today.

Here are the questions we get asked most frequently about joint health. 

At what age should I start supplementing for optimal joint health?

We believe it’s important to begin taking preventative measures for your pet’s joint health early on. Depending on the age, breed, and activity level, different supplements may be recommended. For instance, for younger puppies and kittens, omega-3 fatty acids are great for their inflammatory issues, as well as for their brain and eye development.

What’s the best supplement to give?

When trying to find the best supplement to improve joint health in your pet, it is important to remember that each pet has unique needs. There is no universal supplement or application.  

Supplements come in many forms, like chewable tablets, liquids, powders, and capsules, and offer different levels of support. Furthermore, there is no universal dosage that is suitable for every pet, so it is necessary to find a dosage that is tailored to your pet. For instance, a fish oil capsule may be recommended for one pet, while a green-lipped mussel powder may be recommended for another.

Is there a food that can help reduce inflammation?

There are a variety of dietary choices that can help to reduce inflammation in our pets. A diet that is high in animal-derived protein, fat and moisture, and low in carbohydrates, generally has a higher content of omega-3 fatty acids which can reduce inflammation. Additionally, these foods can be rich in amino acids to promote organ health, and antioxidants to support our pets’ immune systems. 

Adding fresh fruits and vegetables, raw eggs, and commercially prepared meal toppers to their bowl can have positive effects. Moreover, using bone broth or goat milk can improve joint health as well as provide excellent benefits for your pet’s overall wellness.

What other changes can I make to keep joints healthy?

In order to keep your pet’s joints healthy, it is crucial to maintain their weight. Too much weight can put a strain on the joints, reducing their activity. For instance, a 20-lb dog that gains 3 lbs is equal to a human gaining 26 lbs. This extra weight can rapidly lead to a dangerous cycle of health complications, such as joint stress, a decrease in activity, and obesity

To prevent this cycle from starting, we recommend you take these two steps to manage your dog or cat’s weight. 

  1. Stay active! Schedule time each day to keep your pet active, whether it’s a quick walk or run around the block or a backyard fetch session. Exercise keeps the joints healthy and increases metabolism to help maintain a lean body shape. 
  2. Feed the correct amount. We understand that feeding guidelines on pet food labels can be vague and inaccurate. In our experience, following those guidelines typically leads to overfeeding. Give us a call or stop by the shop to let us help you determine the appropriate amount to feed your pet based on genetics, age, and lifestyle. Don’t forget to pay attention to calories from treats!

Preventing pain and discomfort in your pet’s joints is crucial to their enjoyment of life. And fortunately, there are many options for your pet. Please remember that there is no clear-cut solution, and your pet will respond differently to different dietary choices and supplementation – so professionally guided experimentation is key for both you and your pet.

Joint Health Solutions: Exploring Joint Supplements for Cats and Dogs

Joint health is an important concern for pet owners, as joint problems can cause pain and decreased mobility in cats and dogs. Thankfully, there are a number of joint supplements that are designed to help improve joint health and reduce pain. These supplements typically contain one or more of the following ingredients: glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine HCl, chondroitin, MSM, and hyaluronic acid. 

Let’s take a closer look at these ingredients and how they can benefit your pet’s joint health.

Glucosamine sulfate & Glucosamine HCl 

Both glucosamine sulfate & glucosamine HCl are forms of glucosamine, a naturally-occurring substance found in the cartilage and other connective tissues of both cats and dogs. Glucosamine helps to protect and strengthen the cartilage, which helps to prevent joint damage and reduce pain. It can also help to reduce inflammation in the joints.

Glucosamine may take weeks or even months to start working, so it’s important to be patient when adding them to your pet’s diet. 


Chondroitin is another natural substance found in the cartilage of cats and dogs. It works in conjunction with glucosamine to protect and strengthen the cartilage and can also help reduce inflammation.

If your pet is taking other medications or supplements, it is essential to let your veterinarian know since chondroitin may interact with them. 

MSM (methylsulfonylmethane)

MSM is another naturally-occurring sulfur compound that helps reduce inflammation and joint pain. It also helps to improve joint flexibility and reduce stiffness and inflammation. MSM can also help rebuild cartilage and minimize further joint damage.

MSM supplementation does have potential side effects with higher doses. These can include nausea and dizziness. Please follow dosage instructions carefully.

Hyaluronic Acid (HA)

Hyaluronic acid is found in the joint fluid of both cats and dogs. It is a major component of joint fluid and helps to lubricate and cushion the joints. As pets age, the levels of HA in their bodies decrease, leading to joint pain and inflammation. Giving your dog or cat HA supplements can help replenish the natural lubricant in their joints and improve joint health.

Like glucosamine, hyaluronic acid can take several weeks before your pet may experience benefits. 

All of these ingredients are effective at improving joint health in cats and dogs. They help to protect the cartilage and reduce inflammation and pain while also helping to improve joint flexibility and reduce stiffness. As a result, your pets can enjoy better mobility and less pain.

If you notice signs of joint stiffness or decreased mobility, stop in to speak with one of our experts to determine the best supplements for their needs. 

Our Four Best Immune Support Supplements

Our pet’s immune system is the foundation of health. It wards off infections, parasites, bacteria, and viruses and supports overall well-being. 

If our dogs and cats don’t have a robust immune system, they are more vulnerable to illness, allergies, arthritis, and even chronic inflammatory issues.

Fortunately,  there are readily available supplements you can add to your pets’ diets that act as immune system boosters.

Here are our four favorite supplements to strengthen your pet’s immune system and improve all-around health.

1. Medicinal Mushrooms

Mushrooms are nature’s medicine cabinet. While not all mushrooms are medicinal, most edible ones have medicinal properties. To regulate the immune system, we recommend mushroom supplements containing turkey tail, chaga, reishi, and maitake. 

Turkey tail mushrooms have high concentrations of essential sugars (beta-glucan polysaccharides) that help the body activate the immune system. Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary  Medicine even found that a compound from turkey tail lengthened the survival time of dogs with cancer. 

Chaga mushrooms can both boost and slow down the immune system. This means they have properties that can help reduce inflammation but also help regulate overactive immune responses to arthritis.

Reishi mushrooms are reported to have anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and immune-stimulating effects. This mushroom is high in antioxidants that can help nourish, detoxify, and protect the liver. This critical organ detects, captures, and clears bacteria and viruses. 

Maitake mushrooms have been shown to have compounds that may enhance the immune system and provide anti-inflammatory properties, including tumor-fighting abilities against specific types of tumors.

We recommend Super Snouts Super Shrooms and Adored Beast Turkey Tail supplements.

2. Pre- and Probiotics

We have always been staunch advocates for including pre- and probiotics in your pet’s diet! Nearly 80 percent of the immune system resides in the gut, so keeping a healthy microbiome is essential for whole-body health.

We strongly encourage you to add pre-and probiotic foods to your animal’s bowl at every feeding. Or better yet, find a supplement that provides both. Make sure to rotate through the supplements for optimal benefit. For example, use Adored Beast Love Bugs for a month, switch to Fido’s Flora the next, and then to Gut Soothe.

You can also support your pet’s gut microbiome with bowl toppers like raw goat milk and kefir. 

3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Fat is an important component of your pet’s diet. Omega-3 is an “essential” fat that your dog’s body can’t produce on its own. That means she needs to consume them through food or additional supplements.

Omega-3 fatty acids strengthen cell walls, including the membranes of the body’s immune cells. One of these cells includes the white blood cell (macrophage), a critical immune system “enforcer” that seeks out and destroys pathogens in the body. 

It’s important to choose a quality omega-3 supplement. We recommend Nordic Naturals. Alternatively, you can add a healthy source of omega-3 fats to your pet’s diet with toppers like Primal Sardine Butcher’s Blend or Market Mix. 

4. Antioxidants

Thousands of substances act as antioxidants, including the commonly known ones like vitamin C, manganese, selenium, vitamin E, and beta-carotene. Generally speaking, antioxidants can help slow the aging process and boost the immune system by minimizing free radical damage. Free radicals are damaged cells created by your pet’s metabolic process. If a damaged cell is missing a molecule, it will try and repair itself by taking that molecule from another cell. This action can damage the cell’s DNA and will make the host (your dog or cat) more susceptible to disease.

Antioxidants act as a natural “off switch” for free radicals and stop the chain reaction of cells cannibalizing each other for spare parts.

Our go-to antioxidant supplement is Phyto Synergy. This liquid is made from 100% pure marine phytoplankton that is high in antioxidants and easily absorbed in the gut. Antioxidants are also abundant in fresh or frozen berries, which are easy to incorporate into your pet’s meals. 

Supplements are just that – they enhance your pet’s diet but will never replace a well-balanced nutrition program. Stop by the store if you would like to discuss your current feeding regimen or explore a new one – including whether supplements may be appropriate for your pet. We’d love to help you improve your pet’s health through better nutrition.

Golden Paste: How and What For?

Have you heard of “Golden Paste”? It’s a healthy and easily digestible paste made from turmeric that can help reduce inflammation, and skin irritations, and improve gut health in dogs and humans alike. 

Best of all, Golden Paste takes only minutes to make with ingredients most of us already have in our kitchens.  

Golden Paste is typically made with a combination of ground or fresh turmeric, coconut oil, and black pepper.

Turmeric, an herb belonging to the ginger family, contains several compounds, collectively known as curcuminoids. The most well-known is curcumin, which gives turmeric its orange color. Curcuminoids are known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and possible anti-cancer effects.

Adding a small amount (½-1 tbsp) of Golden Paste to your pet’s bowl at meal time can aid in:

  • Reducing inflammatory processes, including pain
  • Relieving gastrointestinal distress, including diarrhea
  • Improve heart and liver function
  • Minimize seasonal allergies

Golden Paste Recipe

  • 1-½ cups filtered water
  • ½ cup turmeric powder
  • 1 tbsp ginger powder (optional)
  • ¼ cup coconut oil
  • 1-½  tsp freshly ground black pepper
  1. Combine the water, and turmeric in a saucepan over medium-low heat, stirring until well combined. Continue stirring until the liquid begins to thicken (about 15 minutes).  Do not let the paste boil.
  2. Remove the saucepan from the heat and let it cool until warm to the touch.
  3. Stir in coconut oil and black pepper. 
  4. Store the mixture in an airtight container for up to four weeks.

Like any new food or supplement, we recommend gradually introducing Golden Paste into your pet’s diet. Turmeric has a very potent taste, and sometimes dogs will not want anything to do with it. Therefore, it is important to slowly introduce the new flavors to their palate. Once a dog has become accustomed to the paste, the recommended dosage is:

  • Dogs weighing less  than 20 lb s: ½ tbsp
  • Dogs weighing more than 20 lbs: 1 tbsp

Possible Side Effects

Turmeric paste can have some minor side effects and it is important to monitor your pet for any negative reactions.. If improperly dosed, dogs may experience gastrointestinal distress. If you notice your dog is showing any negative symptoms —like loose stool or diarrhea— decrease the dose and follow up with your veterinarian.

If you think your dog’s health may benefit from Golden Paste, give this easy recipe a try!  Even though your dog won’t experience instant results, you should see some positive changes in a few weeks!


  1. Simple Turmeric Paste (Golden Paste). Alphafoodie. Published July 2, 2020. Accessed October 20, 2020. https://www.alphafoodie.com/simple-turmeric-paste-golden-paste/
  2. Curcumin, An Active Component of Turmeric (Curcuma longa), and Its Effects on Health.National Library of Medicine. Published September 2, 2017. Accessed October 20, 2020. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26528921/

The Perks of Pumpkin for Pets

Pumpkin is a commonly recommended supplement for dogs and cats for everything from loose stool to constipation to an occasional bowl topper or a regular supplement. But what is it about pumpkin that makes it so great for your pet? Let’s find out what makes this sweet treat a favorite among vets and nutritionists! 

Reasons You Should Consider Adding Pumpkin to Your Dog’s Diet


Pumpkin is rich in dietary fiber – both soluble and insoluble. 

  • Soluble fiber helps with weight management, lowering fat absorption, stabilizing glucose levels, reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, and feeding healthy gut bacteria. 
  • Insoluble fiber assists in preventing constipation and lowers the risk of diverticular disease. 

Because pumpkin contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, it can essentially help to normalize your pet’s stool, whether it’s too loose or too firm. It’s a win-win situation! 

As a preventative, pumpkin is an excellent source of prebiotics that feed the good gut bacteria- probiotics. This is a wonderful addition for any pet with a sensitive stomach as it can aid in the digestive process. Also, since roughly 80% of your pet’s immune system resides in their gut, a happy belly can mean a healthier pet!


Pets need food that allows them to consume all their vitamins and minerals. Pumpkin is packed with essential vitamins and minerals:

  • Vitamin A and Zinc help strengthen your pet’s immune health, promote clearer skin and a healthier coat, and improve overall eye health. 
  • Vitamin D helps to grow and maintain strong bones by regulating and balancing the retention of calcium and phosphorus. It also works to reduce inflammation. 
  • Potassium is vital to pet health! It assists in the functioning of the heart, nerves, and muscles by aiding in transferring energy from the nutrients. 

Not only is pumpkin a great source of vitamins and minerals your pet needs, but it also assists with the absorption of these nutrients to improve many functions of their body.


Kibble-fed pets often live in a mild state of dehydration, as the body pulls moisture from itself to digest the dry food. Therefore, adding moisture to your pet’s kibble is essential. Adding moisture-rich pumpkin can help to keep your pet well hydrated. Added moisture is crucial for not only the digestive process but also… 

  • Weight control – Pumpkin is high in moisture and fiber, which helps your pet feel full. As a result, your pet is less likely to overeat and will be satisfied longer!  
  • Hairballs– Lack of moisture can lead to more frequent hairballs. An addition of pumpkin to your pet’s kibble will keep them well-hydrated, which means fewer hairballs for them and less clean-up for you. 
  • Low in glycemic index– Glycemic index is a measurement of the blood glucose response to carbohydrates. Low GI foods (such as pumpkin) contain carbs that are digested slowly, so energy is sustained for an extended period of time. 

Pumpkin is super versatile for your furry friends. You can include it as a treat, bowl topper, or toy filler. Pumpkin is worth the hype! With the holidays right around the corner, include your pet in the holiday festivities and try incorporating more pumpkin into your pet’s diet! 

CBD & Your Pet: Clearing Up the Confusion

Recently, pet owners have been turning to CBD to promote calm and relaxation in the presence of chronic pain, anxiety, and inflammation. While there are numerous potential health benefits for CBD, there is still much we don’t know enough about this compound naturally occurring in cannabis.

We are frequently asked about CBD, so we wanted to create this quick primer to answer some of your most pressing questions. 

Is CBD the same as medical marijuana?

No. They are two very different things. 

CBD can be derived from either hemp or marijuana plant. Hemp contains very low levels (legally 0.3% or less) of the psychoactive component tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) that is found in marijuana. Marijuana contains more than 0.3% THC. 

How does CBD work?

Once in the bloodstream, CBD can influence the activity of various receptors that can regulate specific nerve receptors. These include receptors that regulate pain, pleasure, digestion, metabolism, inflammation, sleep, movement, neuroprotection, immune function, appetite, body temperature, mood, memory, and cardiovascular function.

In dogs and humans, CBD primarily targets two receptors: CB1 and CB2. 

CB1 is a pain receptor and mood enhancer in the brain, fat, liver, skeletal, and muscular tissues. CB2 is found in immune systems cells and the central nervous system. It tends to have an effect on anti-inflammatory functions.

Some studies have suggested that CBD helps these two receptors balance our endocrine systems, counteracting stress, anxiety, depression, inflammation, and overall well-being. The problem is that many studies are in different species and it cannot be assumed that the same results are applicable to dogs, cats or humans. There is still a significant gap in research in each species in regard to best dosage, dosage route, concentration, and many other variables.

Again, there isn’t much scientific evidence to support that same conclusion with dogs and cats, but the potential seems to exist.

Is CBD safe and effective to use on my dog or cat?

The short answer is “Yes, but consult with your veterinarian first to see if there are any underlying health issues with your pet.” Some studies have shown elevated liver enzymes in pets given CBD, so if you pet has any liver concerns or disease it would be best to avoid these products until we know more.

The longer answer is, “Customers are trying CBD, and some say their pets are getting benefits and others are not.” The reason for this is because, again we don’t have good information on dosage, frequency and how it is best administered. In short, there are a lot more unknowns than knowns. 

Like with many pet supplements, animal research with CBD is in short supply, so we can’t validate the many purported health claims and benefits with any confidence. The bottom line is that we feel there hasn’t been enough clinical research done with animals to allow us to recommend specific uses and dosages.

How much CBD should I give my pet?

Several factors go into dosing CBD, with the three primary considerations being: 

1) Potency of the CBD

2) Your pet’s weight

3) The condition you’re hoping to treat

CBD is a fat-soluble compound. Since our bodies are mostly water, traditional CBD oils will not be fully absorbed in the gut. This is why many CBD oils are delivered via a dropper to the mucus membranes in the mouth. For humans, the best absorption takes about 90 seconds. Good luck getting your dog or cat to not swallow the oil!

Fortunately, nutrition technology advancements are creating CBD products that can be absorbed through fat or by using water-soluble technology and nano-particles to pass through the gastrointestinal tract. 

That’s why we recommend CBD supplements that use nano-particles because they more easily pass through the blood-brain barrier and end up being more effective.

We also caution our customers against using edibles or dog treats with CBD. These products typically have heat applied during their manufacturing. Heat significantly reduces the CBD’s potency and ability to be absorbed by the body. 

OK, but how much CBD should I give my pet?

Exact dosing standards for dogs and cats are still being established and are largely up for debate. Fortunately, federal law requires that CBD derived from hemp contains no more than 0.3% THC. This makes the risk of overdose from CBD relatively low.

However, using CBD hemp products in pets should always be measured and monitored. Follow your veterinarian’s recommendations and the directions on the product label.

Are there any negative side effects if I give my pet CBD?

Since there is little data regarding the benefits of CBD and pets, there is also not much information when it comes to CBD’s adverse effects. Some studies have pointed to potential liver issues, so it is essential that you discuss CBD use with your veterinarian before giving it to your pet. 

Our more significant concern is the lack of regulation with CBD supplements. Most CBD-infused products are marketed as supplements, so they do not fall under FDA regulation but are regulated at the state level. This means little consistency and varying approaches to ensuring product safety. 

This concern is complicated by the non-scientific blogs and retailers making unsupported claims about CBD’s benefits. This climate continues an atmosphere of mistrust and highlights transparency issues in the medical community and with CBD manufacturers. 

For further reading, continue to part II, III, IV


About the Author:

Nicole Cammack

Nicole is the founder & owner of multiple-award-winning NorthPoint Pets & Company, in Connecticut, USA. She has completed undergraduate work in biological sciences, business and holds an M.S. in Nutrition. Currently, Nicole is pursuing a PhD in Comparative Biomedical Sciences (Canine Nutrition/Metabolomics) at the prestigious University of Georgia in the USA.

Her background includes experience in the pharmaceutical industry on multiple R&D projects and has had the privilege to learn from leading figures in the human and pet health industries. Nicole has been heavily involved in police canine nutrition within the USA, helping to improve the modern care and feeding of working dogs. Her interests include working dog nutrition, raw feeding, pathogens, metabolomics, and nutrition’s relationship to disease in humans and canines. Her current research involves the exploration of the canine urinary metabolome and the relationship to diet.

Publications: Cammack, N.R., Yamka, R.M., and Adams, V.J. (2021). Low Number of Owner-Reported Suspected Transmission of Foodborne Pathogens From Raw Meat-Based Diets Fed to Dogs and/or Cats. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 8. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2021.741575.






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